Thesis Guideline

General Format

When you submit your copies of your thesis or dissertation to the Institute, make sure that each copy is printed on an acceptable, uniform grade of paper, with ink that is easily legible. Oversize materials must be either reduced or folded to meet margin requirements. There must be no edges protruding from the finished product.

Acceptable fonts include Times, Times New Roman, Palatino, Garamond, Helvetica and other easy to read serif fonts. Font size must be 12-point in the text, 10-pt in the notes, and at least 8-pt in the figures. All headings, subheadings, table titles, and figure captions must be in 12-point. Please note that bold text is not allowed anywhere in the text.

Left margin (or binding edge): 4.0 cm from edge of page
All other margins: 2.5 cm from edge of page. Please note that the page number is included in the text area and must not appear in the space reserved for the margins.

Text justification
Text should be left-justified only. Do not justify the right-hand margin as this creates spacing problems throughout the text.

The main text is double-spaced: Use single spacing for the table of contents, tables, block quotations and footnotes. The bibliography is single-spaced, with a space between each entry.

Paragraphs must be indented 1-1.5cm. Most word processors use 1.27cm (0.5 ınch) as the default value. Just be sure to use the same value throughout your document. No extra spacing is needed between paragraphs.   Paragraphs at the start of a section or following a block quote or table or figure should not be indented.

The front matter is numbered with small roman numerals (i, ii, iii, iv...). Regular page numbers with Arabic numerals begin with Chapter One, the Introduction, and are centered at the bottom of the page. The page numbers should not appear on the title and approval pages.

When you submit the copies of your final document to your thesis or dissertation committee, do not submit your original manuscript. All copies must be neat, clean, and uniformly dark throughout the text.

Front Matter

All pages, except the title page, must have a page number. This includes charts, graphs, illustrations, the bibliography and any appendix matter. The preliminary pages receive lower case Roman numerals (i, ii, iii) while the main text pages receive Arabic (1, 2, 3).


Page Number Assigned  








Title page

does not appear



Approval page

(ii) does not appear



Abstract (English)




Abstract (Turkish)




Vita (Curriculum Vitae)


(Ph.D. only)










Table of contents




List of Figures/tables




Glossary of
non-English terms




Note on transcription




List of abbreviations












Cover Page

The cover of the thesis or dissertation should include the following, all in capital letters:

1. The full title of your work.
2. Your full legal name, as it appears at the registrar's office.
3. The name of the university
4. The year.

On the spine should appear the following, all in capital letters:

1. Your full legal name.
2. The words M.A. Thesis or Ph.D. Dissertation.
3. The Year
Title Page

Title Page

Note: The page number of the title page (1) is not printed.
The title page will include:

  1. The full title of your work. Be sure to have your title approved by your advisor and checked by the Institute editor for descriptive accuracy.
  2. Your full legal name, as it appears at the registrar's office.
  3. A sentence describing the degree for which you are applying and the name of the Institute to which you are submitting your work.
  4. The name of the university.
  5. The year.

Approval Page

Note: The page number of the approval page is not printed.
Each of the  final copies of your thesis must have its own approval page, each of which will be signed by the members of your review committee once you have successfully met all requirements. The signatures of the committee members must be  in permanent black ink. The date at the bottom of the page is the date (month and year)  of the degree awarded.

You must provide an abstract of your paper in both English and Turkish, on separate pages, with the English version appearing first. The abstract will feature the full title of your thesis and full legal name as it appears on the title page, along with a brief description of your work (around 250 words).
Do not cite references, authors, or give personal acknowledgment in this section.
If your abstract is longer than one page, single space it to make sure that it fits a single page.

Vita (Curriculum Vitae)

Required of Ph.D. candidates only, the curriculum vita is a brief summary of your academic career, not an autobiography. Ideally, it should not exceed two pages. It will include:

  1. Your full legal name as found on the title page.
  2. Your place of birth.
  3. Your date of birth.
  4. The names of the universities you have attended, at the graduate and undergraduate levels. Be sure to list institutions in reverse chronological order, with most recent first.
  5. Degrees awarded. List in reverse chronological order, and include your current degree.
  6. Areas of special interest or study.
  7. Any relevant professional experience.
  8. Awards and honors.
  9. Grants and scholarships.
  10.  Publications (a master's thesis is considered a publication in this vita.)

Acknowledgements can recognize people who have given you special guidance or assistance during your work and any grant support you may have received. Acknowledgements should be expressed simply, on one page if  possible, two maximum. Personal dedications can be included at the end of this section.

Table of Contents

The title of each entry must be exactly the same as it appears in the text

The text of the table of contents should be 12-pt. Do not use bold type. All of the letters and all of the words in the main headings should be all-capitalized, while those of the sub-headings should receive standard book title capitalization (see below on rules on book title capitalization in English). If using beyond first-order  subheadings, number all headings and subheadings. Tables and charts that appear in the text should be listed on a separate page following the table of contents under an appropriate title ("Illustrations," "Figures," "Charts," "Tables"...)

The table of contents should list all of the elements of your work in the order in which the appear including sections of the main text down to first-order sub-headings only.

Lists of illustrations, figures, charts, etc. (optional)

These may be tables, graphs or any other type of illustration. Each category should have its own list on a separate page upon which you list the number, caption or title, and page number of every item that appears in your work, even those appearing in the appendix(es). Tables and charts that appear in the text  should be listed consecutively throughout the text (Table 1, Table 2, or Fig. 1, Fig. 2, with Arabic numerals) and not by chapter or section (Table 1.2, Fig. 3.4.1).

Glossary of Non-English Terms
If your text features a large number of non-English terms, you might want to include a glossary in which all items appear in alphabetical order with their equivalents in English. It will appear on its own page and receive standard pagination.

Notes on Spelling and Transcription
You may want to add notes to explain the use you have made of of a certain spelling, transcription, transliteration, etc., in a non-English language and/or non Latin alphabet.

List of Abbreviations
If you use a lot of abbreviations in your texts (the names of political parties or organizations, for example) you might want to present them in a list accompanied by their full forms as a reference aid to the reader. Abbreviations pertaining to notes or the bibliography should be placed in the Back Matter.

***DO NOT create a list of abbreviations for your sources.
Each of our style categories (APA, MLA, Chicago/Humanities has its own method for abbreviating titles. Students who do this are required to redo their texts in the correct format.

A chronological list of the events discussed in your thesis or dissertation is a good idea if your topic is of an abstract nature and/or the sequence of events is not clear to the non-specialist. It will appear on its own page and receive standard pagination.


Contrary to general belief, a preface —sometimes called a foreword— is not an introduction. It is rather a personal section in which you may want to present the research involved in preparing your work, while the introduction eases the reader into the work, describing the context of the subject matter. A good preface should typically include a general introduction to the topic, by setting the scene from your own perspective. You may want to make some general statements about the state of the art in the topic you are treating, and pose some fundamental questions that may give the reader a sense of what you are after in your work. This is a chance for you to write about your personal experience and efforts while preparing your research: sources, previous research, difficulties encountered, coincidences that may have led you to your topic or to a certain document. This could be an occasion for you to familiarize the reader with your problem, with a specific approach, with certain methodological issues, with a peculiar terminology. You may also want to give your readers a glimpse of the logic and structure you are going to follow in your work. However, you should avoid giving away your findings at such an early stage; after all, the preface is meant to be a “teaser” that lures the reader into your work. A preface should have a structure of its own, much like an essay, with a beginning and an end. You should therefore come to a graceful closing that sums up your aims, but also allows for further thought. The concluding remarks of a preface are ideal for a preemptive move against criticism by admitting to weaknesses and shortcomings, while at the same time stressing the strong points and originality of your research.

Note: Phd Students should write Phd Dissertation instead of MA Thesis in all the relevant places.





The Main Text begins with "Introduction" and ends with "Conclusion." Chapters begin after Introduction and end before Conclusion. The appendix(es) and bibliography are considered Back Matter.


  1. The main text of the thesis and dissertation receives Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3)
  2. All pages should be numbered, including the Introduction, tables, illustrations, appendix(es), and bibliography.
  3. Numbering begins with page 1 and runs consecutively to the last page.
  4. Page numbering such as 12a, 12b is unacceptable.
  5. There should be no punctuation along with the page numbers (such as a dash or a period).
  6. Page numbers should be centered at the bottom of the page.

Headings and sub-headings

Bold will be used in headings and sub-headings



Each chapter of your work begins on a new page and starts with its designation and number. You may use either Arabic or Roman numerals for this (ex: CHAPTER 4, CHAPTER IV). The chapter designation is centered and  ALL CAPITALIZED and placed 3cm from the top of the page. Do not use bold type anywhere in the headings.

After the chapter designation comes the chapter title, also centered and all capitalized.  If the title is longer than one line, break it into two lines with the top line longer than the bottom line. 


All sub-headings are placed at the left-hand margin of the text. If using beyond first-order sub-headings number all sub-headings.

"Orphaned" or "widowed" sub-headings
  Once you have reached  the final draft of your thesis, pay attention to the layout of your sub-headings. Make sure that they stay together with their text and are not "orphaned" or "widowed" (abandoned tragically) at the bottom of the preceding page).

Rules for standard book title capitalization
Capitalize  all words except articles (a, the), prepositions (from, to, through...), and coordinate conjunctions ( and, or...).


Theory and Problems of Statistics

Stock Trading throughout the Twentieth Century

Quotations in any language other than English (including Turkish) must be translated into English and both should be given in the main text. Quotes may range in length from a single word to several pages. You must be very careful both to transfer the quote to your paper exactly as it appears in the source, and to cite it properly.

Direct quotations must be reproduced exactly, not only the wording but the spelling, capitalization, and internal punctuation of the original, except that single quotation marks may be changed to double, and double to single as the situation prescribes. The initial letter may be changed to a capital or lowercase letter in a passage from an older work or from a manuscript source, any idiosyncrasy of spelling should  be preserved. You may want to add "[sic]" to any spelling mistake or misuse of word, to show that you are aware of it and that you are reproducing the original form. If you wish to add stress or emphasis in a quotation by underlining or italicizing a word or group of words, be sure to add, "(my emphasis)" after that passage.

The placement of short quotes
How you place a quote in the text depends on its length. Short quotations (less than four lines in length) should appear in the text in the same size type as the text (no bold type), and enclosed in quotation marks.

The placement of long quotes
A longer quote, called an extract, excerpt, or block quotation, is set in its own paragraph with the left margin adjusted to match general paragraph indentation. The right margin is also brought in to give a balanced effect. Block quotations do not take quotation marks, italics or bold print, and are single spaced.

Omitting words within a quote
If you wish to remove words or clauses within a quotation that you deem irrelevant to your argument, replace them with a set of three dots in parentheses or brackets. Any addition you make to the original text (punctuation, words, word fragments...) should be given in parentheses or brackets.

The use of names
Names, both first and last, appear in the standard form, not all capitalized or in bold print (Marie Curie not Marie CURIE).

Using non-English words
Make sure that the meanings of all non-English names and terms are clear to the non-specialist. Translate all terminology and names of organizations. No hard rules for how words are presented exist; sometimes the non-English is given first, followed by English in parentheses or within commas, and sometimes the English is given with the non-English in parentheses. Words in non-Latin alphabets can be kept in their original script as long as a Latin transcription or transliteration is also given.  All non-English words that do not appear in English language dictionaries should be italicized. Please note that italics should be used only for the exact foreign word but not for any suffix or letter added to it due to English  usage (gecekondus, instead of gecekondus).

Defining words with no English equivalent
Sometimes it is necessary to use a non-English term to refer to something because the equivalent does not exist in English. Gecekondu, for example, might be translated as "slum" or "squatter settlement," but these terms fall short of depicting the true situation as some of these settlements are quite luxurious and meant to be permanent structures. The following two examples will illustrate our point:

"Huge numbers of people migrated to Istanbul, Ankara, Izmir and Adana. There, the squatter towns of gecekondu ("built at night") dwellings soon assumed gigantic proportions and their growth has continued. Today, over half of the built-up surface of Ankara, the capital, consists of gecekondus."

"In 1864, a new law on provincial organization introduced a complete hierarchical system of provincial organization and subdivisions, from the vilayet (province) through the sancak (county) and kaza (district) to the nahiye (rural community) and the kariye (village)."


Presenting numbers
Spell out numbers up to 100 (seven, nineteen, fifty-six) and all round numbers that can be expressed in two words (two hundred, five thousand, nine million).

Thousands and ten thousands, etc., are separated with commas, not dots

3,400; 100,000; 560,900,000

Decimals should be given as a dot (23.5), not with a comma (9,7), even for percentages (9.6%).

Percentages are best given by the word "percent" ("25 percent of the population..."). However, it may be easier when you have frequent use of it in a text, and/or in tables, to replace it with "%." At any rate, make sure its use is consistent throughout your work.

There are two styles for presenting dates in academic writing. Choose one and then be consistent throughout your text.

28 June 2005 or June 27, 2002

Do not use "st", "nd", "rd" (July 1st) unless the month is implied in the same paragraph and the date appears alone.

"The school year always begins in September. This year school will begin on the 15th."

You may use these letters in superscript (1st, 2nd, 3rd) especially since most word processors do it automatically as you type. Once again, what counts it that you should be consistent throughout your work.

Always spell out in full (nineteenth century, twentieth century),

Please note that "century" is almost always preceded by "the", unless you are using it as an adjective.

The rate of income per capita declined in the nineteenth century.
Nineteenth century income levels declined.

Illustrative materials
Tables, charts and illustrations must meet all margin and pagination requirements. Each table or figure should be placed as close to its first text reference as possible. Materials smaller than  half a page should be set within the text; larger items may be put on a separate page. When an item is placed within the text, a double-space should be left above and below it. Wide tables may be placed  sideways, or they may continue from page to page.

The titles of tables are written with book title style capitalization (ex: Table 12. GNP by Decade) and appear above the table. The titles of figures and illustrations appear below the item and only the first letter of the sentence is capitalized (except for proper nouns, like place names) (ex: Fig. 34. Interior view of the TBMM, 1945.).


Table 2 Rates of Student Participation in Voluntary Testing



No lunch

With lunch















Fig. 3 Bar chart showing results of test

Each table/figure should be numbered sequentially with Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3…) in the order they appear throughout the text.

If a long table does not fit on a page, it may continue from page to page. In that case, repeat the table number on the consecutive page, but not the title (e.g., Table 1. continued. Please see sample at the back for further examples). You should also repeat the column and/or row labels.

Wide tables, figures, or illustrations may be placed sideways (landscape orientation), but only on a separate page. Another option is to use fold-outs, i.e. to print your figure/table on A3 size paper and fold it back in half, so as to fit an A4 format.

The font type and size used in figures/tables should be consistent throughout the work unless there is a compelling reason to do otherwise. The smallest font size you can use is 8-point.


Back Matter

Reference materials that are placed in the thesis or dissertation behind the Main Text are called Back Matter. In addition to your bibliography, which is obligatory in every research paper, these may include an appendix or an index.

Page numbering continues from the main text throughout all the back matter.

The order of back matter

  1. Appendix(es) (if any)
  2. Bibliography (obligatory)
  3. Index(es) (if any)

Appendixes present information that supports your text, like data sheets or tables, the texts of all non-English passages translated in the Main Text, photocopies of original documents, etc. This material must be presented on paper of the same size and quality as the rest of your work. Make sure that it follows margin requirements and is easy to read.

All pages receive pagination in continuation from the Main Text. Each appendix must have its own title. If you have more than one appendix, each receives a designation letter (Appendix A, Appendix B, etc.) along with its title, using the same size and style of font as the Main Text. Each appendix has its own page.

If you want to separate your appendix from the preceding material with a cover sheet, the title should be centered and placed 10 centimeters from the top of the page.

Any quote or excerpt longer than two sentences that has been translated into English in the Main Text must have its original text presented in the appendix section.

A bibliography is a list of references used in the study of your subject or offered as additional reading on the subject which should be indicated separately. The Department chooses the Chicago Manual of Style (author-date system) of bibliography and citation. Be careful to provide complete entries as described in the guide for your style.


The Conclusion

The Conclusion is more than just a summary of the data you have presented in the main text. Along with summarizing the basic arguments, you must show your conclusions and discuss the implications of your findings. The paper is, after all, an exercise in scientific method, which does have a specific pattern of hypothesis(es), data, summary/conclusion.

Without a conclusion, your paper would be just a description of people and events. It would show only that you are good at compiling data- but what they really want to see is what you do with that data, what conclusions you draw from it, how your study ties into the larger picture.

The conclusion is where you can make the strongest case for yourself as an academic. In this respect, it is the most important part of your paper, as it is where you really show yourself. Take as much care with it as you have with the other parts of the paper.

The conclusion should be able to stand on its own, almost like an essay on the study. It should have a beginning, a middle, and an end.

The conclusion should include the following:

  1. A restatement of your subject, your thesis, hypothesis, or what can be called "the central mission" of your study.
  2. A presentation of your findings, a summary. Be careful to avoid making a chapter by chapter list of the contents of your main text. It should sound like a discussion.
  3. Discuss and interpret findings. Give answers. Draw inferences from your study and discuss the relevance of your data.
  4. Point to areas of further research. No doubt while you were researching your topic, in some areas, you found more questions than answers.
  5. Graceful exit. Make sure your ending has an ending. The final two or three paragraphs are as important as any others. You could talk about the overall significance of the study, of the subject in general, and how it is important to know about it, how it can "change the world", or maybe world view. Make the reader feel that it has been worth his or her time to read this paper and that the world will be a better place with you in it as an academic.

Your conclusion should NOT include:

  1. New data.
  2. Any footnotes, as an outcome of #1.
  3. Afterthoughts or additional ideas. These should all be worked into the preface or the main text. If you feel it is too late to work them into the main text, then leave them out all together, or use them in the part that discusses directions in further research.